There are two main kinds of deserts - hot deserts and cold deserts. All deserts are very dry and only get 10 inches or less of rain (or snow, in some deserts) each year. Deserts are located all around the world and most of them cover a large area of land. Because of their large size, some deserts can be a lot different in different areas. For example, the largest hot desert, the Sahara, has areas with mountains. Most deserts have sandy or rocky soil. Some have large piles of sand that have been formed and hardened by the wind, called sand dunes. Other deserts have large rocks. Some deserts even have flat plains with grass and small shrubs.
The hottest deserts are called arid, which just means they are extremely dry. Hot temperatures and lack of water make arid deserts too harsh of a place for most plants or animals to survive. Even though they are very hot, usually around 100° Fahrenheit during the day (but can get higher than 120° at times!), they cool down a lot when the sun goes down. Night temperatures in hot deserts can sometimes fall all the way down to 0° F during the coldest part of the year! The reason it gets cold at night is that the dry air can't hold the heat from the day, so it rises back up into the sky, cooling the earth down. (If you live in a humid place, you may know that it doesn't cool off very much even at night after a hot summer day. That's because the moisture in the air from the humidity blocks the heat and keeps it from rising.)
Some hot deserts are slightly cooler and get more rain. They are called semi-arid and can support many more kinds of plants and animals. Semi-arid deserts are similar to arid deserts, but are a little less extreme, although they still get pretty hot because of the dry air. Semi-arid deserts also tend to get dew and sometimes fog that bring moisture even when it doesn't rain.
Did you know that Antarctica and the Arctic are considered deserts? They are covered by snow and ice, but most of it has been there for a very long time without ever melting! It might seem like a place that is covered in frozen water could not be a desert. Well, for most of the year, it is too cold for the snow and ice to melt, which means plants and animals can't use it as water. Most animals that live in these frozen deserts live on the coast near the ocean, where there is water that isn't completely frozen. However, some animals, like polar bears, can survive on land by burrowing underground to stay warm and hibernating during the coldest times of year. Cold deserts mostly get snow instead of rain during the winter. They are very dry because cold air holds less water vapor (tiny droplets of water) than warm air!
There are also some cold deserts that are not as extreme as the ones at the north and south poles. Even though they get quite cold in the winter, the summers are usually warm, long, and dry. The driest place on earth, the Atacama Desert in South America, is an example.
Even though it is hot and water is hard to find, the desert is a habitat for many plants and animals, just like the forest or the ocean. Living in a desert can be difficult, but desert plants and animals have special ways to survive lots of heat (or cold, in the cold deserts) and not much water.
During the day, the sun quickly makes animals hot and evaporates(or dries up) water from their bodies. Many desert animals, like foxes, mice, snakes, and insects, are nocturnal, which means they are most active at night. When the sun goes down in the desert, it gets much cooler and many animals come out of their burrows (holes in the ground away from the sun's heat) or out of the shade where they hide out during the day. Some desert foxes and mice have very large ears that help their bodies get rid of extra heat.
In a desert, water is very precious. Even when it's hot and dry and doesn't rain for months, animals and plants can still live, as long as they get some water. Plants can sometimes get water from deep underground using their roots. Animals can get enough water to stay alive by eating certain plants. Sometimes clouds moving through the desert can cause tiny droplets of water, called dew, to form on leaves, grasses, cactus spines, and other surfaces. This happens at night when it cools down. Early in the morning, animals can get a quick drink before the hot sun comes up and dries up the moisture. Dew is an important source of water for life in the desert - even if it doesn't rain for a long time, animals and plants can use the moisture from dew to stay alive.
All living things need water to live. Why is water so important? Water makes up about 70% of our bodies, so going long periods of time without drinking any water could make you very sick. That is also true for animals, except they don't need nearly as much water as humans do. Ones that live in the desert need even less water than animals that live other places. For example, camels are able to store water in their humps, so they can go a long time without a drink.
Have you ever seen a cactus? Cacti (more than one cactus) are plants that grow very well in dry places. They can gather water easily when it's available using their long roots and store it in their trunks and branches for when it isn't. These special plants are also good at making their water last a long time. A waxy coating on the outside of a cactus makes it harder for water to evaporate from the plant, even when the weather is very hot and dry. Because of these special features, cacti can live for a long time without rain or any other source of water.
Cacti are succulentplants. Because of all the water they store, they have fleshy and swollen-looking bodies. Their stems can swell up to hold extra water that they absorb when it rains. Other succulent plants besides cacti - such as yucca, jade, and aloe vera - have thick leaves that can store a lot more water than the leaves of most plants. Most, but not all, plants that grow in deserts are succulents. These plants normally have shallow roots that spread out far from the plant to collect as much water as possible when it rains. Some of them also have a large taproot, which goes down several feet into the ground to reach water deep below the surface.
Most kinds of cacti have spines instead of leaves. Spines make it harder for animals to eat a cactus, keeping its water supply safe. Cacti grow flowers during the season with the most rainfall (usually springtime). They bloom for a short time and often open at night time when it's cooler. Cacti are hard for animals to eat, but birds and other animals like to live in holes in the trunks of tall cacti, just like they do in trees. One particular cactus, the Saguaro (say: su-WAR-oh) cactus, which only grows in the Sonoran desert (in Arizona and Mexico), can grow up to 50 feet tall. Certain kinds of woodpeckers make holes in Saguaros to nest in.
Even though cacti are a symbol of the desert for many people, they don't grow in all deserts! In fact, cacti are native to North and South America (before humans brought them into other parts of the world, they only grew on those continents).
Grasses, short bushes, and special types of trees also grow well in deserts. They grow far apart from each other though, because the soil doesn't have enough water for very many plants in one area. Grass and shrubs or bushes usually have roots that stretch out farther than the plant is tall to get as much water as possible when it rains.
Arid- very dry, without enough water to keep trees and most types of plants alive and growing.
Evaporate- when water molecules warm up and change from a liquid into a gas.
Nocturnal- an animal that is most active at night and usually sleeps during the day.
Succulent- plants that store water in their stems, leaves, or roots. They are fleshy and full-looking.
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